Nov 01, 2017 cocaine, also known as coke is a very powerful and addictive drug with a crazy history. African americans, particularly in the inner cities of the united states, have. History of the crack cocaine essay examples 761 words 4 pages. The initiation of crack cocaine into socially eroded communities took place during president ronald. But away from movie and tv depictions, crack addiction is a serious, deadly problem for thousands of people. For many years, the native south american indians chewed its leaves to develop strength and increased energy. Crack could also be smoked much more easily, requiring a temperature of only 194f to vaporize. For many, crack use became an obsession, dominated their lives, and superseded family responsibilities. The original cocaine comes from a paste made from the leaves of the south american coca plant. Crack is a relatively new drug on the scene compared to drugs like opium or heroin. Siegel believes that crack cocaine was imported to the united states in the early 1970s by united states cocaine smugglers who observed coca paste smoking while in south america. A complete history of crack cocaine drug rehab options.
The true story of the 1980s crack epidemic is still untold. A survey of its history reveals that cocaine has been used by a diverse spectrum of people. Cocaine has a long history of availability and abuse around the world the us being no exception. Cocaine comes from the leaf of the coca tree, which is grown in south america, normally columbia, bolivia and peru. This mixture is boiled, dried, and broken into rocklike chunks. During the 1980s, cocaine producers in south america particularly. How the cias crack cocaine controversy destroyed journalist gary webb nation books, 2006 and also appears in the upcoming history limited series. The history of cocaine shows that as drugrelated crime escalated dramatically, legal penalties for sales of cocaine and crack were increased, and u. Crack is an essential read for anyone hoping to understand why. How todays opioid crisis is similar to the crack cocaine. Crack has destroyed millions of lives since it was first introduced to the streets of america. The impact of crack cocaine on black america lavelle hendricks, edd assistant professor psychology, counseling, and special education.
Crack cocainea crystallized form of the drugbecame popular in the. A complete history of crack cocaine march 28, 2018 substance abuse 0 comments crack cocaine, commonly shortened to crack, is a free base version of cocaine a drug that has been used in various forms in south america for centuries. Numerous african american families have struggled for generations with persistent poverty, especially in the inner city. Aug 31, 2018 nick schou is author of kill the messenger. The drug is still highly potent, very powerful and extremely addicting despite the chemical changes that take place when it is cooked. In 2012, 88 % of imprisonments from crack cocaine were african american. Crack users take crack cocaine by putting the cocaine rocks into a crack pipe and smoking them.
When the first crack house was discovered in miami in 1982, it drew little. Crack is a relatively new drug on the scene compared to drugs. While the use of coca leaves as an intoxicant dates back three thousand years, crack cocaine, a crystallized form of cocaine, was developed during the cocaine boom of the 1970s and its use spread in the. Mar 28, 2018 a complete history of crack cocaine march 28, 2018 substance abuse 0 comments crack cocaine, commonly shortened to crack, is a free base version of cocaine a drug that has been used in various forms in south america for centuries. How the cias crack cocaine controversy destroyed journalist gary webb nation books, 2006 and. Learn cocaines place in america, how it got here, where it comes from, and. Crack, a form of cocaine that is sold as rocks and smoked, first appeared in large u. But perhaps the defining moment in the history of cocaine in the united states was the crack epidemic. These conditions were further strained during the 1980s and 1990s by the widespread use of crack cocaine. Cocaine hydrochloride was, and is, a comparably expensive drug.
The severelydistressed african american family in the. Helms motion passesthe penalty for possession of 5 grams of crack now equals the penalty for possession of 500 grams of powder. Cocaines role in american history cocaine was first synthesized in 1855. In the united states, crack cocaine was the primary drug of abuse in 178,475 admissions to treatment in 2006. The difference between powder cocaine and crack cocaine from that time on, the history of cocaine really started to develop as freud published an article which proclaimed cocaine as the magical substance that could be accepted for a wide range of benefits including its ability to reduce many ailments and cure various problems. Crack cocaine could easily be one of the most vilified and infamous drugs in america, being synonymous with many of the public images whether accurate or otherwise of substance abuse and addiction. This lively, wellresearched history of americas crack cocaine years introduces readers to entrepreneurial dealers, desperate users, and draconian drug policies.
Learn more about the history of cocaine and crack, how history has reshaped the reputation of the drugs, and how the legal system handles sentencing differently by. What is crack cocaine differences between crack and cocaine. Circa 19001990s after the harrison narcotic act that identified cocaine as a forbidden substance in 1914, cocaine abuse was a rather quiet phenomenon for several decades, with just a few exceptions. People used to taking cocaine would take an equivalent amount of crack and overdose, and hospital admissions due to cocaine overdose doubled in a year. Rock cocaine, street capitalism, and the decade of greed, david farber, distinguished professor of history at the university of kansas, places the epidemic in the context of americas. Crack is the hard form of cocaine that develops when the drug is mixed with water and other solvents and then cooked into a hard, rock form. Rise of cocaine and crack cocaine in the united states today. Crack cocaine is made by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and baking soda sodium bicarbonate or ammonia. Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished neighborhoods in new. In fact, the drug cartels in colombia are pressuring farmers to produce coca in place of other local crops. A person trafficking 500 to 5,000 grams of cocaine powder or 28 to 279 grams of cocaine base crack cocaine can receive a 5 to 20year prison sentence for a first offense.
Smoking base is incredibly euphoric, just like shooting it. This creates a short high, followed by tiredness, depression, panic, anxiety, and brain damage. From wild experiments with frogs to a doctor repairing his. It is one of the most highly additive and destructive drugs in the world.
Crack cocaine was first introduced to the united states in the early 1980s, going on to become an epidemic with millions of users and contributing to. The invention of crack represented a technological innovation that dramatically widened the availability and use of cocaine in inner cities. Small doses of it are smoked into the lungs and delivered quickly to the brain. Smoking crack cocaine was a movement that swept across the united states and has had a great impact on american society curtis, 2003. By 1985, cocaine related hospital emergencies rose by 12 percent, from. Statement of the problem crack became popular in the 1980s due to its psychopharmacological properties and it. The crack epidemic had particularly devastating effects. Crack cocaine has been popular since the 1970s and mid 1980s. By 1985, cocainerelated hospital emergencies rose by. Crack epidemic, the significant increase in the use of crack cocaine, or crack, in the united states during the early 1980s. Cocaine in america history of crack rocks coco in the. Another reason for the rise of cocaine and crack cocaine in the us today is the fact that colombia is producing more coca the plant that produces cocaine than ever before.
The effect of increased temperature on the rate of cocaine metabolism in blood. Crack epidemic united states history 1980s britannica. Crack cocaine abuse signs, symptoms, and addiction treatment. This plant, native to south america, has been used for its pleasurable effects for thousands of years. This lively, wellresearched history of americas crack cocaine years introduces readers to entrepreneurial dealers, desperate users, and. Sep 25, 2019 crack cocaine could easily be one of the most vilified and infamous drugs in america, being synonymous with many of the public images whether accurate or otherwise of substance abuse and addiction. The crack epidemic the history of crack cocaine drugfree world. This resulted in a number of social consequences, such as increasing crime and violence in american inner city neighborhoods, as well as a resulting backlash in the form of tough on crime. The crack epidemic the history of crack cocaine drugfree. The 2007 us governments monitoring the future survey found that among highschool students, 3. Reasoningwith no evidencethat crack cocaine is 100 times more addictive than powder cocaine, north carolina senator jesse helms proposes to make the penalty for possession of crack cocaine 100 times higher. The manual of adolescent substance abuse treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack became a popular alternative to cocaine in urban and workingclass areas because it was much cheaper than cocaine.
Origin and history pure cocaine is extracted from the leaf of the erythroxylon coca bush found mostly in south america. When it hit the market, crack cocaine caught on in a big way. After cocaine and baking soda are combined, the mixture is boiled, and a solid forms. Sep 19, 2016 cocaine in america history of crack rocks coco in the united states prime history crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. The crack epidemic dramatically increased the number of americans addicted to cocaine. In 1985, the number of people who admitted using cocaine on a. The crack epidemic the history of crack cocaine drug. The crack epidemic in the united states was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the united states between the early 1980s and the early 1990s.
In the late 1980s, americans came to believe that illegal drugs were the nations biggest problem. Natives of the andes mountains have used the plants containing cocaines active ingredient for medicinal and recreational purposes for at. Rockingup cocaine powder and smoking it was originally the method developed so distributors of cocaine could test the purity of the drug before it was purchased from the manufacturers. Crack cocaine was popularized because of its affordability, its immediate euphoric effect, and its high profitability. Crack cocaine first appeared in miami, where caribbean immigrants taught adolescents the technique of converting powdered cocaine into crack. The coca plant is one of the oldest cultivated plants in south america. The history of cocaine from ancient to modern day abuse. Crack cocaine could be obtained for the same price at purities of around 80 percent. Cocaine, also known as coke is a very powerful and addictive drug with a crazy history. This led to a dramatic increase in crack use known as the crack. The severelydistressed african american family in the crack. Learn more about the history of cocaine and crack, how history has reshaped the reputation of the drugs, and how the legal system handles sentencing differently by drug type and race. In 1985, crack sold for about five dollars a rock in most cities.
Pure cocaine is extracted from the leaf of the erythroxylon coca bush found mostly in south america. Cocaine and its exquisitely addictive influence stand as such powerful points of reference in american culture that when a 20 study suggested that oreo cookies were as addictive as cocaine, the findings made thousands of headlines, according to the huffington post. The crack epidemic in the united states was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across. As a form of cocaine, crack derives from the leaves of the coca plant. From the earliest incas in what is modernday peru, to the nineteenthcentury medical elites of europe and america, to the crimeridden streets and crack houses of u. Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack or rock, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.
Cocaine is a hydrochloride salt in its powdered form, while crack cocaine is derived from powdered cocaine by combining it with water and another substance, usually baking soda sodium bicarbonate. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine using a simple conversion process. It is abused because it produces an immediate high and because it is easy and inexpensive to producerendering it readily available and affordable. Although health care providers can use it for valid medical purposes, such as local anesthesia for some surgeries, recreational cocaine use is illegal. However, these descriptions of his drug dealing history contain certain facts. Cocaine in america history of crack rocks coco in the united states prime history crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. The coca plant has been used as a stimulant by the native people of south america for many centuries, but it wasnt until 1859 that modern cocaine was developed as a drug in germany. The following is a condensed history of cocaine in the united states, leading up to the creation of crack cocaine. From wild experiments with frogs to a doctor repairing his own hernia and much more. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to south america. Measuring crack cocaine and its impact harvard university.401 584 1028 327 489 660 1383 689 1354 744 879 580 880 1009 1140 1177 1252 974 1053 818 1517 989 1125 861 1513 1333 48 1202 871 1486 1581 948 1307 1195 875 134 1250 1317 454 1177 1404 1010